Contents

  • Early metals
    • Introduction

      The earliest recorded use of metals (8,700B.C)  is thought to have been in the Middle East.  Pure nuggets of gold and copper were gathered and hammered into useful objects. ...

    • Heat and metal

      Heating metal until liquid allowed solid nuggets to be combined into bigger more complex items. ...

  • Metal production
    • Mining

      ​Mietal minerals must be extracted from the ground.  When close to the surface, an open pit mine is used.  These can be massive in size. ...

    • Environmental effects

      Poorly managed mining can have severe environmental effects and lead to land, air and water pollution ....

    • Mining

      Modern mining techniques require strict environmental impact studies.   The economic value of the mine must be balanced with the potential environmental costs.  During the mining operation careful monitoring must be done to guard ag...

  • Ferrous Metals
    • Ferrous metals

      Iron ore, the most abundant mineral on our planet, is heavy, metallic in colour, magnetic and rusts. Ancient Chinese used cast iron in tools and weapons. ...

    • Metal recycling

      Ferrous  metals, because of their magnetic properties are well suited to recycling. ​...

  • Non-ferrous metals
    • Non-ferrous metals

      Non-ferrous metals (either pure or alloyed) contain no iron. They may be light (aluminum), are good conductors of electricity (copper) and are corrosion resistant (brass). Some are common (lead, tin), oth...

  • Metal manufacturing methods
    • Benchwork

      Metalwork can be done with hand tools.    ...

    • Machine methods

      Modern metalworking relies on the use of  variety of machines.  Heat can be used to soften or melt metal. Casting in...

    • Turning / milling

      Objects symmetrical about a central axis may be turned to shape while spinning on a lathe. ...

    • CAM

      Computer aided manufacturing uses computers for both design and shaping. ​The first step is designing the 3 - dimensional part on a computer ...

    • Welding

      Welding is a process where by pieces are joined by melting.  A properly welded joint is as strong as the individual pieces. When the parts are melted, a filler material is usually added. The heat source may be gas flame, electric...

    • Welding

      Resistance welding involves passing electric current through the metal, raising it's temperature to melting.   ​Spot welding is typically used to join overlapping sheets of metal ...

    • Welding

      Metal Inert gas welding  (MIG) uses a continuous wire feed as an electrode and a special gas mixture to protect the weld.  Since the wire fed electrode is continuous, this is a faster process th...

    • Safety

        ...

  • Rare earth metals
  • Careers in metal working
    • Metal working jobs

      Metal; workers are in  high demand.  Working conditions vary from inside to outdoors.  Manmy of these jobs use modern high tech. equipment. Fabrication -   ...

    • Untitled

      ...